Endoscopy

Endoscopy helps in diagnosing and identification of malignancies and gastrointestinal infections without the need of the explorative surgeries. An endoscope is inserted either through natural openings of the body, like mouth, nose, anus, urethra or vagina, or through the incision near the organ to be examined. The endoscope is a long flexible tube like instrument with attached cameras on the edge of the scope. Endoscopy has progressed beyond the gastrointestinal viewing. They are categorized into Arthroscopy, Bronchoscopy, Colonoscopy, Ureteroscopy, Laparoscopy, and Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy/ esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Endoscopy is one of the safest procedures but it does involve minimal rare complications like bleeding due to intestinal wall tear and minor infections. Endoscopy is used to evaluate unexplained abdominal pains, bleeding, gallstones, gastritis, polyps, ulcerative colitis, pancreatic cancer, Ulcers, gastric, oesophageal, hepatobiliary, hepatopancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), is the most commonly used imaging modalities in the screening of pancreatic cancer. In ERCP, the endoscope guides a catheter through the bile duct to insert dye into the organ, which helps create the images showing blockages, tumors or other obstructions. ERCP is also used to place a stent into the duct. Endoscopy is not only a diagnostic tool, but has also been turned into a therapeutic tool due to the advancements in the field of imaging.